To test out and demonstrate the proprieties of mother-of-pearl in the dental field, the Doctors Camprasse began by carrying out their first cases (on animals). First, they did so privately, then at the French National Veterinary School’s Biomedical Research Centre [Centre de Recherche Biomédicale de l’Ecole Nationale Vétérinaire] in Maisons-Alfort.
1988 Publication in scientific journal Médecine et Thérapeutique (1)
Substitution, in animals and human subjects, of the dental nerve with the skeletons of aquatic invertebrates [Substitution de la racine dentaire par des squelettes d’invertébrés aquatiques chez l’animal et l’homme]
The aim of this clinical study was to demonstrate perfect biocompatibility between the maxillary bone and the naturally-occurring CaCO3 in skeletons of aquatic invertebrates (coral and Pinctada maxima). The conclusion is as follows: it now appears possible to use artificial roots made of aragonite in oral implantology on a routine basis. The Doctors Camprasse noted rapid osteointegration, which appears to be generated by osteoinduction due to chemotaxis of the material on the bone cell.
1990 Publication in scientific journal Clinical Materials (2)
Artificial dental root made of natural calcium carbonate (Bioracine)
The aim of this essay was to highlight the exceptional mechanical properties of mother-of-pearl (hardness, strength, elasticity).
The conclusion reached by the Doctors Camprasse is as follows: the artificial dental root made from mother-of-pearl, taken from the internal shell of the Pinctada maxima, is very close to bone tissue in terms of its composition, and presents remarkable hardness, strength, and elasticity.
A histological study of the interface between the implant and the human maxillary bone also demonstrated an extraordinary union cellular union between these two tissue types and therefore osseointegration of the mother-of-pearl implant. Mother-of-pearl is an exceptional tooth substitute, with biological properties answering to natural bone.
Scientific publication in Implantodonné (3)
A new biomaterial for bone regeneration – Clinical Study [Un biomatériau de régénération osseuse nouveau – Etude Clinique]
Having demonstrated in vivo that mother-of-pearl was a non-toxic, bioactive and osteogenic biomaterial, the Doctors Camprasse worked on various odontostomatological pathologies, through clinical case at Hôpital Lariboisière hospital: remedying defected bone, elevating maxillary or mandibular ridges, remodeling to remedy loss of substance, augmentation of the vestibulo-palatine or vestibulo-lingual width in implantology, and extractions where decay was present.
The conclusions are as follows: four years on, the Doctors Camprasse can state that Bionacre® (in powder form used as a coagulum) is an extremely effective biomaterial for bone regeneration which opens up an array of possibilities in the field of bone surgery.
Following their major discoveries concerning the properties of mother-of-pearl in dental implantology, in the early 1990s the Doctors Camprasse broadened their fundamental clinical research, to gain an understanding of the mechanisms of actions of mother-of-pearl on bone cells generally.
1992 Publication in scientific journal Tissue and Cell (4)
Demonstration of the capacity of nacre to induce bone formation by human osteoblasts maintained in vitro
The aim of this study was to test out the hypothesis according to which mother-of-pearl may stimulate biomineralisation in human osteoblast maintained in vitro.
The conclusion is as follows: The Doctors Camprasse successfully demonstrated that when human osteoblasts were cultivated in the presence of mother-of-pearl, a complete bone formation sequence was reproduced. The Doctors were the first to demonstrate that mother-of-pearl contains molecular factors that induce osteoblastic differentiation, and that this osteoblastic differentiation enables the triggering of the bone’s biomineralisation mechanism. At the same time, they also demonstrated that mother-of-pearl is not cytotoxic to bone cells.
1992 Publication in scientific journal Calcified Tissue International (5)
Nacre initiates biomineralization by human osteoblasts maintained in vitro
The aim of this study was to test out the hypothesis according to which there may be simultaneous presence of bone and mother-of-pearl on human osteoblasts. Previously, the Doctors Camprasse had demonstrated that osteoblasts were able to differentiate themselves and thus trigger the bone’s biomineralisation mechanism.
The conclusion is as follows: The Doctors Camprasse successfully demonstrated that mother-of-pearl does have a powerful osteogenic effect on human osteoblasts when they are placed near the bone. In other words, mother-of-pearl has this spectacular ability to induce the formation of new, fresh bone.
2014 Publication in scientific journal Journal of Raman Spectroscopy (6)
The interface between nacre and bone after implantation in the sheep: a nanotomographic and Raman study
The aim of this study was to analyse the interface between bone and mother-of-pearl, to better ascertain biocompatibility with bone. The study was carried out on the bones of five sheep.
The conclusion is as follows: The Doctors Camprasse successfully confirmed a modification of the bone tissue around the mother-of-pearl implant and the direct affixation of the bone, without a layer of organic matter, sandwiched between the calcium carbonate and the calcium phosphate. In other words, osteointegration of the mother-of-pearl occurs thanks to the formation of new bone.
2016 Publication in scientific journal Orthopaedics & Traumatology: Surgery & Research (7)
In vivo erosion of orthopaedic screws prepared from nacre (mother of pearl)
The aim of this study was to analyse the behaviour of mother-of-pearl screws with the hypothesis according to which the screw would be assimilated by the bone without inflammatory effects, and without rejection occurring.
The Doctors Camprasse noted several phenomena:
- The erosion is gradual
- The cells do not have ragged edges (no inflammation)
- The mineralisation rate is augmented in the vicinity of the mother-of-pearl screw
In conclusion, mother-of-pearl screws have the advantage of presenting in vivo resorbability properties thanks to the cells that originated from the macrophages, and to their osteoconductive affixation onto the material, without setting off a local inflammatory reaction.
2019 Publication in scientific journal Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Medicine (8)
Giant cells and osteoclasts present in bone grafted with nacre differ by nuclear cytometry evaluated by texture analysis
The aim of this study was to analyse the interface between the mother-of-pearl implant and the bone.
The Doctors Camprasse observed that there was partial erosion on the surface of the mother-of-pearl screw, a few microns deep. This highlights the melding between the bone and the mother-of-pearl screw and goes some way towards showing the osteointegration of the screw in the bone. In other words, the screw “becomes” the bone.
Surgery carried out on a human subject at Hôpital Béclère hospital, by Doctor Philippe Cottin
- Gunshot wound (buckshot), with a 15-cm femur bone loss.
- After multiple complications and two failed iliac crest autografts, decision to use the bone substitute Bionacre® to remodel the sequester.
- Five years on, good consolidation of the femoral core. No septic processes or fistula
- 20 years on, consolidation and remodelling of the medullary canal.
- Camprasse G, Camprasse S, Gill G. Substitution de la racine dentaire par des squelettes d’invertébrés aquatiques chez l’animal et l’homme. Comptes Rend Acad Sci, Paris. 1988;307:485‑91.
- Camprasse S, Camprasse G, Pouzol M, Lopez E. Artificial dental root made of natural calcium carbonate (bioracine). Clinical Materials. 1990;5(2):235‑50.
- Lopez E, Vidal B, Berland S, Bozon C, Camprasse S, Camprasse G. Un biomatériau de régénération osseuse nouveau: étude clinique. Implantodonné. 1991;2:13‑7.
- Lopez E, Vidal B, Berland S, Camprasse S, Camprasse G, Silve C. Demonstration of the capacity of nacre to induce bone formation by human osteoblasts maintained in vitro. Tissue and Cell. 1992;24(5):667‑79.
- Silve C, Lopez E, Vidal B, Smith DC, Camprasse S, Camprasse G, et al. Nacre initiates biomineralization by human osteoblasts maintained In Vitro. Calcif Tissue Int. 1992;51(5):363‑9.
- Pascaretti‐Grizon F, Libouban H, Camprasse G, Camprasse S, Mallet R, Chappard D. The interface between nacre and bone after implantation in the sheep: a nanotomographic and Raman study. Journal of Raman Spectroscopy. 2014;45(7):558‑64.
- Libouban H, Pascaretti-Grizon F, Camprasse G, Camprasse S, Chappard D. In vivo erosion of orthopedic screws prepared from nacre (mother of pearl). Orthopaedics & Traumatology: Surgery & Research. 2016;102(7):913‑8.
- Chappard D, Kün-Darbois J-D, Pascaretti-Grizon F, Camprasse G, Camprasse S. Giant cells and osteoclasts present in bone grafted with nacre differ by nuclear cytometry evaluated by texture analysis. J Mater Sci: Mater Med. 2019;30(9):100.